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Using this protocol, data is exchanged in application protocol data units APDUs. This comprises sending a command to a card, the card processing it, and sending a response.

EMV uses the following commands:. An EMV transaction has the following steps: The intent of application selection was to let cards contain completely different applications—for example GSM and EMV.

However, EMV developers implemented application selection as a way of identifying the type of product, so that all product issuers Visa, Mastercard, etc.

The way application selection is prescribed in EMV is a frequent source of interoperability problems between cards and terminals.

Book 1 [12] of the EMV standard devotes 15 pages to describing the application selection process. An application identifier AID is used to address an application in the card.

This is followed by a proprietary application identifier extension PIX , which enables the application provider to differentiate among the different applications offered.

Eight West African countries: The terminal sends the get processing options command to the card. When issuing this command, the terminal supplies the card with any data elements requested by the card in the processing options data objects list PDOL.

The PDOL a list of tags and lengths of data elements is optionally provided by the card to the terminal during application selection. The card responds with the application interchange profile AIP , a list of functions to perform in processing the transaction.

The card also provides the application file locator AFL , a list of files and records that the terminal needs to read from the card.

Smart cards store data in files. These all must be read using the read record command. EMV does not specify which files data is stored in, so all the files must be read.

EMV defines tag values for all data used in card processing. The purpose of the processing restrictions is to see if the card should be used. Three data elements read in the previous step are checked.

If any of these checks fails, the card is not necessarily declined. This feature lets, for example, card issuers permit cardholders to keep using expired cards after their expiry date, but for all transactions with an expired card to be performed on-line.

Offline data authentication is a cryptographic check to validate the card using public-key cryptography. There are three different processes that can be undertaken depending on the card:.

Cardholder verification is used to evaluate whether the person presenting the card is the legitimate cardholder. The terminal uses a CVM list read from the card to determine the type of verification to perform.

Different terminals support different CVMs. Terminal risk management is only performed in devices where there is a decision to be made whether a transaction should be authorised on-line or offline.

If transactions are always carried out on-line e. Terminal risk management checks the transaction amount against an offline ceiling limit above which transactions should be processed on-line.

It is also possible to have a 1 in an online counter, and a check against a hot card list which is only necessary for off-line transactions. If the result of any of these tests is positive, the terminal sets the appropriate bit in the terminal verification results TVR.

The results of previous processing steps are used to determine whether a transaction should be approved offline, sent online for authorization, or declined offline.

This is done using a combination of data objects known as terminal action codes TACs held in the terminal and issuer action codes IACs read from the card.

Both types of action code take the values Denial, Online, and Default. The TAC is set by the card acquirer; in practice card schemes advise the TAC settings that should be used for a particular terminal type depending on its capabilities.

The IAC is set by the card issuer; some card issuers may decide that expired cards should be rejected, by setting the appropriate bit in the Denial IAC.

Other issuers may want the transaction to proceed on-line so that they can in some cases allow these transactions to be carried out. An online-only device such as an ATM always attempts to go on-line with the authorization request, unless declined off-line due to Issuer action codes —Denial settings.

This object is a list of tags that the card wants to be sent to it to make a decision on whether to approve or decline a transaction including transaction amount, but many other data objects too.

The terminal sends this data and requests a cryptogram using the generate application cryptogram command.

Transactions go online when an ARQC has been requested. The ARQC is sent in the authorisation message. The card generates the ARQC.

Its format depends on the card application. The ARQC created by the card application is a digital signature of the transaction details, which the card issuer can check in real time.

This provides a strong cryptographic check that the card is genuine. The issuer responds to an authorisation request with a response code accepting or declining the transaction , an authorisation response cryptogram ARPC and optionally an issuer script a string of commands to be sent to the card.

Even if for any reason the terminal could not go online e. The card application may then reset offline usage limits. If a card issuer wants to update a card post issuance it can send commands to the card using issuer script processing.

Issuer scripts are encrypted between the card and the issuer, so are meaningless to the terminal. Issuer script can be used to block cards, or change card parameters.

The first version of EMV standard was published in Recognition of compliance with the EMV standard i. EMV Compliance testing has two levels: EMV Level 1, which covers physical, electrical and transport level interfaces, and EMV Level 2, which covers payment application selection and credit financial transaction processing.

This was upgraded to EMV 3. This was further amended to version 4. In addition to the track-two data on the magnetic stripe, EMV cards generally have identical data encoded on the chip, which is read as part of the normal EMV transaction process.

If an EMV reader is compromised to the extent that the conversation between the card and the terminal is intercepted, then the attacker may be able to recover both the track-two data and the PIN, allowing construction of a magnetic stripe card, which, while not usable in a Chip and PIN terminal, can be used, for example, in terminal devices that permit fallback to magstripe processing for foreign customers without chip cards, and defective cards.

This attack is possible only where a the offline PIN is presented in plaintext by the PIN entry device to the card, where b magstripe fallback is permitted by the card issuer and c where geographic and behavioural checking may not be carried out by the card issuer.

In October it was reported that hundreds of EMV card readers for use in Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Belgium had been expertly tampered with in China during or shortly after manufacture.

For 9 months details and PINs of credit and debit cards were sent over mobile phone networks to criminals in Lahore , Pakistan.

Tens of millions of pounds sterling are believed to have been stolen. Cambridge University researchers Steven Murdoch and Saar Drimer demonstrated in a February BBC Newsnight programme one example attack, to illustrate that Chip and PIN is not secure enough to justify passing the liability to prove fraud from the banks onto customers.

APACS, the UK payments association, disagreed with the majority of the report, saying "The types of attack on PIN entry devices detailed in this report are difficult to undertake and not currently economically viable for a fraudster to carry out.

The fraud reported in October to have operated for 9 months see above was probably in operation at the time, but was not discovered for many months.

In August , NCR payment technology company computer security researchers showed how credit card thieves can rewrite the code of a magnetic strip to make it appear like a chipless card, which allows for counterfeiting.

Any four digits are typed in and accepted as a valid PIN. A member of the research team said, "Even small-scale criminal systems have better equipment than we have.

The amount of technical sophistication needed to carry out this attack is really quite low. We dispute the assertion by the banking industry that criminals are not sophisticated enough, because they have already demonstrated a far higher level of skill than is necessary for this attack in their miniaturized PIN entry device skimmers.

EMVCo disagreed and published a response saying that, while such an attack might be theoretically possible, it would be extremely difficult and expensive to carry out successfully, that current compensating controls are likely to detect or limit the fraud, and that the possible financial gain from the attack is minimal while the risk of a declined transaction or exposure of the fraudster is significant.

When approached for comment, several banks Co-operative Bank, Barclays and HSBC each said that this was an industry-wide issue, and referred the Newsnight [30] team to the banking trade association for further comment.

Because submission of the PIN is suppressed, this is the exact equivalent of a merchant performing a PIN bypass transaction. As a result of this, the transaction ARQC must be submitted online to the issuer, who knows that the ARQC was generated without a successful PIN submission since this information is included in the encrypted ARQC and hence would be likely to decline the transaction if it were for a high value, out of character, or otherwise outside of the typical risk management parameters set by the issuer.

Originally, bank customers had to prove that they had not been negligent with their PIN before getting redress, but UK regulations in force from 1 November placed the onus firmly on the banks to prove that a customer has been negligent in any dispute, with the customer given 13 months to make a claim.

The PIN harvesting can be performed with a chip skimmer. Normally, the card issuer is liable for fraudulent transactions.

Chip and PIN systems can cause problems for travellers from countries that do not issue Chip and PIN cards as some retailers may refuse to accept their chipless cards.

Non-chip-and-PIN cards may also not work in some unattended vending machines at, for example, train stations, or self-service check-out tills at supermarkets.

Chip and PIN was trialled in Northampton , England from May , [44] and as a result was rolled out nationwide in the United Kingdom on 14 February [45] with advertisements in the press and national television touting the "Safety in Numbers" slogan.

During the first stages of deployment, if a fraudulent magnetic swipe card transaction was deemed to have occurred, the retailer was refunded by the issuing bank, as was the case prior to the introduction of Chip and PIN.

On January 1, , the liability for such transactions was shifted to the retailer; this acted as an incentive for retailers to upgrade their point of sale PoS systems, and most major high-street chains upgraded on time for the EMV deadline.

Many smaller businesses were initially reluctant to upgrade their equipment, as it required a completely new PoS system—a significant investment.

New cards featuring both magnetic strips and chips are now issued by all major banks. The card issuer Switch lost a major contract with HBOS to Visa , as they were not ready to issue the new cards as early as the bank wanted.

The Chip and PIN implementation was criticised as designed to reduce the liability of banks in cases of claimed card fraud by requiring the customer to prove that they had acted "with reasonable care" to protect their PIN and card, rather than on the bank having to prove that the signature matched.

Until 1 November there was no such law protecting consumers from fraudulent use of their Chip and PIN transactions, only the voluntary Banking Code.

While this code stated that the burden of proof is on the bank to prove negligence or fraud rather than the cardholder having to prove innocence, [46] there were many reports that banks refused to reimburse victims of fraudulent card use, claiming that their systems could not fail under the circumstances reported, despite several documented successful large-scale attacks.

The Payment Services Regulations came into force on 1 November [47] and shifted the onus onto the banks to prove, rather than assume, that the cardholder is at fault.

After widespread identity theft due to weak security in the point-of-sale terminals at Target , Home Depot , and other major retailers, Visa, Mastercard and Discover [52] in March — and American Express [53] in June — announced their EMV migration plans for the United States.

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