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Along with the flag of Germany , which first appeared in its essentially "modern" form in ; it was one of the symbols of the March Revolution of In order to endorse its republican and liberal tradition, the song was chosen as the national anthem of Germany in , during the Weimar Republic.
West Germany adopted the " Deutschlandlied " as its official national anthem in for similar reasons, with only the third stanza sung on official occasions.
Upon German reunification in , only the third stanza was confirmed as the national anthem. The line "Germany, Germany above all" meant that the most important goal of 19th-century German liberal revolutionaries should be a unified Germany which would overcome loyalties to the local kingdoms, principalities, duchies and palatines Kleinstaaterei of then-fragmented Germany.
It has been conjectured that Haydn took the first four bars of the melody from a Croatian folk song. For further discussion see Haydn and folk music.
Haydn later used the hymn as the basis for the second movement poco adagio cantabile of his Opus 76 No. In addition, with the Carlsbad Decrees of , Austrian Chancellor Klemens von Metternich and his secret police enforced censorship, mainly in universities, to keep a watch on the activities of teachers and students, whom he held responsible for the spread of radical liberalist ideas.
Since reactionaries among the monarchs were the main adversaries, demands for freedom of the press and other liberal rights were most often uttered in connection with the demand for a united Germany, even though many revolutionaries-to-be had different opinions about whether a republic or a constitutional monarchy would be the best solution for Germany.
The German Confederation Deutscher Bund — was a loose federation of 35 monarchical states and four republican free cities, with a Federal Assembly in Frankfurt.
They began to remove internal customs barriers during the Industrial Revolution , and the German Customs Union Zollverein was formed among the majority of the states in For a short period in the late s, Germany was economically united with the borders described in the anthem, and a democratic constitution was being drafted, and with the black-red-gold flag representing it.
However, after the two largest German monarchies, Prussia and Austria, put an end to this liberal movement toward national unification.
August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben wrote the text in on holiday on the North Sea island of Heligoland , then a possession of the United Kingdom now part of Germany.
In the third stanza, with a call for " Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " unity and justice and freedom , Hoffmann expressed his desire for a united and free Germany where the rule of law , not monarchical arbitrariness, would prevail.
Germany, Germany above all, Above all in the world, When, for protection and defence, It always stands brotherly together.
German women , German loyalty, German wine and German song Shall retain in the world Their old beautiful chime And inspire us to noble deeds During all of our life.
Unity and justice and freedom For the German fatherland! Towards these let us all strive Brotherly with heart and hand! Unity and justice and freedom Are the safeguards of fortune;: After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in , " Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser " became the official anthem of the emperor of the Austrian Empire.
With those new lyrics, the song continued to be the anthem of Imperial Austria and later of Austria-Hungary. Austrian monarchists continued to use this anthem after in the hope of restoring the monarchy.
During the time of the German Empire it became one of the most widely known patriotic songs. The song became very popular after the Battle of Langemarck during World War I , when, supposedly, several German regiments, consisting mostly of students no older than 20, attacked the British lines on the Western front singing the song, suffering heavy casualties.
They are buried in the Langemark German war cemetery in Belgium. The official report of the army embellished the event as one of young German soldiers heroically sacrificing their lives for the Fatherland.
In reality the untrained troops were sent out to attack the British trenches and were mown down by machine guns and rifle fire.
This report, also known as the "Langemarck Myth", was printed on the first page in newspapers all over Germany.
It is doubtful whether the soldiers would have sung the song in the first place: Nonetheless, the story was widely repeated. The melody used by the "Deutschlandlied" was still in use as the anthem of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until its demise in In the black, red and gold tricolour, the colours of the 19th century liberal revolutionaries advocated by the political left and centre, was adopted rather than the previous black, white and red of Imperial Germany.
In this way, the first verse became closely identified with the Nazi regime. After its founding in , West Germany did not have a national anthem for official events for some years, despite the growing need for the purpose of diplomatic procedures.
In lieu of an official national anthem, popular German songs such as the Trizonesien-Song , a carnival song mocking the occupying Allied powers, were used at some sporting events.
Though the black, red and gold colours of the national flag had been incorporated into Article 22 of the West German constitution , a national anthem was not specified.
On 29 April , Chancellor Konrad Adenauer asked President Theodor Heuss in a letter to accept " Das Lied der Deutschen " as the national anthem, with only the third stanza being sung on official occasions.
President Heuss agreed to this on 2 May This exchange of letters was published in the Bulletin of the Federal Government. Since it was viewed as the traditional right of the President as head of state to set the symbols of the state, the " Deutschlandlied " thus became the national anthem.
As the lyrics of this anthem called for "Germany, united Fatherland", they were no longer officially used, from about ,  after the DDR abandoned its goal of uniting Germany under communism.
With slight adaptations, the lyrics of " Auferstanden aus Ruinen " can be sung to the melody of the " Deutschlandlied " and vice versa.
In the s and 80s, efforts were made by conservatives in Germany to reclaim all three stanzas for the anthem.
The opening line of the third stanza, " Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " "Unity and Justice and Freedom" , is widely considered to be the national motto of Germany, although it was never officially proclaimed as such.
The first verse, which is no longer part of the national anthem and is not sung on official occasions, names three rivers and one strait — the Meuse Maas in German , Adige Etsch and Neman Memel Rivers and the Little Belt strait — as the boundaries of the German Sprachbund.
As the song was written before German unification, there was never an intention to deliniate borders of Germany as a nation-state. Nevertheless, these geographical references have been variously criticized as irredentist or misleading.
The Belt strait and the Neman later became actual boundaries of Germany the Belt until , the Neman until , whereas the Meuse and Adige were not parts of the German Reich as of Today, no part of any of the four places mentioned in the " Deutschlandlied " lies in Germany.
In an ethnic sense, none of these places formed a distinct ethnic border. The Duchy of Schleswig to which the Belt refers was inhabited by both Germans and Danes, with the Danes forming a clear majority near the strait.
Around the Adige there was a mix of German, Venetian and Gallo-Italian speakers, and the area around the Neman was not homogeneously German, but also accommodated Lithuanians.
The Meuse if taken as referencing the Duchy of Limburg , nominally part of the German Confederation for 28 years due to the political consequences of the Belgian Revolution , was ethnically Dutch with few Germans.
Nevertheless, such nationalistic rhetoric was relatively common in 19th-century public discourse. Despite the text and tune of the song being quite peaceful compared to some other national anthems, the song has frequently been criticised for its generally nationalistic tone, the immodest geographic definition of Germany given in the first stanza, and the alleged male-chauvinistic attitude in the second stanza.
However, the latter misleading translation was chosen by the Allies during both World Wars for propaganda purposes. One director would prepare for shooting while the other was shooting.
They worked in parallel like this throughout the filming of the show. SundanceTV created a digital marketing strategy that reflected the use of locations in Germany that were meant to recreate both East and West Germany in the early s.
Reflecting both the intertitle of the show, the marketing team created sliders  that show locations as they were in contrast to the current day.
Heil, who often collaborates with Tom Tykwer Run Lola Run , said that he was on board the project when he saw the first scene of the show, where two teenagers are being interrogated by the border guards one of whom was Martin, the main character for attempting to smuggle two books by Shakespeare and Marx across the border.
He said that it was very realistic, which comes from his similar experience when he was caught smuggling music Stravinsky and Bach.
Deutschland 83 was met with excellent reviews and received a Peabody Award. The first two episodes of Deutschland 83 premiered at the Berlinale to very positive reviews.
Writing in The New Yorker , Emily Nussbaum called the show a gorgeous, slinky thriller, praising its recreation of Germany as "nearly as aesthetically aspirational" as Mad Men.
He praises the "excellence in time-faithful environment and details" but also points out the similarities with the series Weissensee.
In Germany, Deutschland 83 began to air after the U. As a result, German newspaper Bild called the show "the flop of the year". It premiered on Channel 4 in the United Kingdom on 3 January , with the final two episodes shown back-to-back on 14 February.
It has since become the most popular foreign-language drama in the history of British television with an audience of 2.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Deutschland 83 Deutschland 83 English-subtitled intertitle. Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original on 21 July Retrieved 18 July Retrieved 4 January Retrieved 13 November Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 27 July Retrieved 27 February Retrieved 10 January Retrieved 8 October Archived from the original on 25 July Retrieved 24 July Archived from the original on 4 March This is the biggie.
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